Indian Journal of Ophthalmology - Case Reports

: 2021  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 210--211

A tale of two leaks – Pachychoroid spectrum

Manavi D Sindal, Bholesh Ratna 
 Vitreoretina Services, Aravind Eye Hospital and Postgraduate Institute of Ophthalmology, Pondicherry, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Manavi D Sindal
Vitreoretina Services, Aravind Eye Hospital, Thavalakuppam, Cuddalore Main Road, Pondicherry - 605 007


How to cite this article:
Sindal MD, Ratna B. A tale of two leaks – Pachychoroid spectrum.Indian J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2021;1:210-211

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Sindal MD, Ratna B. A tale of two leaks – Pachychoroid spectrum. Indian J Ophthalmol Case Rep [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 19 ];1:210-211
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 Case Report

A 65-year-old female presented with OS disciform scar and OD hemorrhagic pigment epithelial detachment (PED) with subretinal fluid (SRF) at the inferior arcade, with no fluid at macula [Figure 1]. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at presentation was 6/9 OD and hand movements in OS. Simultaneous Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) revealed polyps near inferior arcade establishing the diagnosis of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) [Figure 2]. She received anti-VEGF injections with focal laser to the extrafoveal polyps with good response. She was on regular follow-up with OCT monitoring. New-onset SRF with new PEDs at macula were noted 16 months later with BCVA reduction to 6/18. She received an anti-VEGF injection [Figure 3]a. At 1-month follow -up, there was increased SRF [Figure 3]b and further reduction of BCVA to 6/24. She underwent FFA and ICGA which showed a hot spot corresponding to polyp on the ICGA, a smokestack leak corresponding to central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) on FFA with a common PED in between [Figure 4]a and [Figure 4]b. She underwent focal laser to both lesions along with anti-VEGF, with resolution of SRF at 1 month [Figure 3]c and improvement of BCVA to 6/12. She has thereafter been on regular follow up for 45 months with monitoring on regular OCT scans. She developed recurrent subretinal and intra-retinal fluid four months later and has received 12 additional anti-VEGF injections over this time period maintaining BCVA of 6/12. There was no recurrence of CSCR during this follow-up.{Figure 1}{Figure 2}{Figure 3}{Figure 4}


CSCR and PCV both represent components of the pachychoroid spectrum. Pachychoroid is the phenotype where there is focal or diffuse choroidal thickening. This results primarily from dilated vessels in Haller's layer, with thinning of Sattler's layer and choriocapillaries.[1] The pachychoroid leads to a hyperpermeable state, which if not compensated by the retinal pigment epithelium, results in fluid accumulation and CSCR. Chronic choroidal vascular hypertension can result in the formation of polyps.[2] Yannuzzi et al. reported the occurrence of polyps in cases previously diagnosed as CSCR.[3] Manayath et al. have reported the co-existence of CSCR like leaks with polyps.[4] This case highlights the occurrence of new polys in a secondary location after successful treatment of initial extrafoveal polyps. Combined FFA & ICG enabled us to determine the cause for the paradoxical increase in fluid,[4],[5] enabling prompt treatment. Focal laser does not address the branching vascular network component of PCV, and polyp regression can be partial. Both of these factors can contribute to recurrence or continued disease activity.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.


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